Open educational resources, or oer, are freely available, openly licensed ( usually creative commons) learning materials that can be legally downloaded, edited all geol 230 environmental geology faculty assembled see instructor for textbook information 30022 hist 211 us history to 1877 american yawp. Importance of open education the history of learning suggests that a new technology can lead to a philosophy that produces awesome changes in how people learn. Oer commons is a dynamic digital library and network explore open education resources and join our network of educators dedicated to curriculum improvement. Directory of open educational materials from commonwealth of learning, cc by -sa, free, not mentioned, biology, business management, chemistry, computer science, cultural studies, economics, engineering, english, food preparation & services, history, literature, mathematics, philosophy,. Open education is education without academic admission requirements and is typically offered online open education broadens access to the learning and training traditionally offered through formal education systems the qualifier open refers to the elimination of barriers that can preclude both opportunities and. Characteristics of openness and motives of opening up education can be found in many respects throughout the history of education from plato's elitist concept of education for a ruling class of philosophers to the strategic efforts of the unesco and other institutions to improve the quality of education, the relation of private.
Philosophers have argued over such questions for centuries this free course, two concepts of freedom, looks at a positive and a negative concept of freedom, asking you to think carefully about how freedom is restricted by our place in society and how it can vary from state to state course learning outcomes after studying. Given the considerable rise of open education over recent years, these critical appraisals urge us to expand theoretical approaches and refine our we will elaborate on the potentials of bildung by reviewing the history of the concept and exploring the extent to which bildung can provide open education with a theoretical. Essay reviews oer's history, extraordinary growth, and place in education from the perspective of vided just over us$170 million to develop and extend the reach and effective- ness of oer we tell the story of oer's development, provide examples and discuss uses of oer open: the philosophy and practices that.
Sustainable development goal 4 (united nations) enjoins us to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all while we cannot rely on our current rigid and closed educational traditions to meet this goal, the concepts of the open education movement provide some. Source coverage is defined as follows: comprehensively indexed journals contain an average of 80% or more education-related articles eric creates a bibliographic record for all articles in every acquired issue selectively indexed journals contain american educational history journal american educational research.
One of the most ironic historical reversals of the last 20 years is the shift on free trade and globalization by china and the us china was once a closed and isolationist communist society and economy under mao deng xiaoping initiated gaige kaifang (literally 'opening up'), often summed up as the four. What are some major philosophies of education in the united states today essentialism focuses on teaching the essential elements of academic and moral knowledge essentialists urge that schools get back to the basics they believe in a strong core curriculum and high academic standards perennialism focuses on the.
The texas higher education coordinating board does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age 4-5, washington, dc : us pirg education foundation and the student pirgs “open educational resources” was first used and defined as the “technology-enabled, open provision. It is therefore unfortunate that the pursuit of philosophy of education as an area of philosophical investigation has been largely abandoned by general philosophers in the last decades of the twentieth century, especially in the united states the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s saw quite a few general philosophers make important.
For many in education, the term open educational resources or oer probably translates functionally as 'free definition which obscures some of the key features and questions of interest that drive the 'oer historical phenomena, including the development of correspondence schools, which can be understood as. Open educational resources (oer) are teaching, learning and research resources made freely available for use and often modification importantly, the open education approach means that many oer have been peer reviewed either formally or informally by a community of educators oer can be downloaded,. Fifth, and finally, there is a large body of work that clearly falls within the more technically-defined domain of philosophy of education three historical giants of the field are plato, rousseau, and dewey, and there are a dozen or more who would be in competition for inclusion along with them the short-list of. The united kingdom and the united states the commission of the european communities resource (oer) movement aims to break down such barriers and to encourage and enable freely sharing content the definition of oer currently most often used is “digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators.
Introduction: open education and education for openness xvii michael a peters & rodrigo g britez theoretical and philosophical considerations 1 the history and emergent paradigm of open education 3 michael a peters 2 the democratic turn: prosumer innovation and learning in the knowledge. For ef, it has been the philosophy behind every program for 50 years this simple but effective way to learn has helped us become world's largest educational organization though hard to imagine today, traveling abroad to learn english was a radical concept in 1965 it took a university student with dyslexia to come up. A perennial conception of the nature of philosophy is that it is chiefly concerned with the clarification of concepts, such as knowledge, truth, justice, beauty, mind, meaning, and existence one of the tasks of the philosophy of education, accordingly, has been the elucidation of key educational concepts, including the concept. And so, as a first step toward explaining why schools are what they are, i present here, in a nutshell, an outline of the history of education, from the beginning but certainly the philosophy of education throughout that period, to the degree that it could be articulated, was the opposite of the philosophy that.